Simply Me

My personal blog on what i like, what i write, and more! <3
theolduvaigorge:

Protein May Alter Inevitability of Osteoarthritis
“No treatment will stop or significantly slow the disease, and joint replacement is the only definitive treatment. That may change, however, as researchers such as Dr. Brendan Lee, professor of molecular and human genetics at Baylor College of Medicine, and his colleagues unravel the effects of a naturally occurring protein called lubricin or Proteoglycans 4 that appears to protect against aging as well as helping with post-injury related changes.
A report on their research appears online in the journal Science Translational Medicine.
Prevents cartilage breakdown
"This protein also affects the metabolism of the cartilage and does it in a way that prevents its breakdown," said Lee, who is also director of the Rolanette and Berdon Lawrence Bone Disease Program of Texas and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. "This is not just lubrication of the joints.
Osteoarthritis is common, affects more than 70 percent of the population between the ages of 55 and 77, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In most cases, treatment addresses only the symptoms. If the disease gets severe enough, surgeons replace the affected joint.
"In spite of a lot of investment, there is no disease-modifying treatment that affects the course of the disease," said Lee" (read more).
(Text source: Science Daily; image source: Mayo Clinic)

theolduvaigorge:

Protein May Alter Inevitability of Osteoarthritis

No treatment will stop or significantly slow the disease, and joint replacement is the only definitive treatment. That may change, however, as researchers such as Dr. Brendan Lee, professor of molecular and human genetics at Baylor College of Medicine, and his colleagues unravel the effects of a naturally occurring protein called lubricin or Proteoglycans 4 that appears to protect against aging as well as helping with post-injury related changes.

A report on their research appears online in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Prevents cartilage breakdown

"This protein also affects the metabolism of the cartilage and does it in a way that prevents its breakdown," said Lee, who is also director of the Rolanette and Berdon Lawrence Bone Disease Program of Texas and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. "This is not just lubrication of the joints.

Osteoarthritis is common, affects more than 70 percent of the population between the ages of 55 and 77, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In most cases, treatment addresses only the symptoms. If the disease gets severe enough, surgeons replace the affected joint.

"In spite of a lot of investment, there is no disease-modifying treatment that affects the course of the disease," said Lee" (read more).

(Text source: Science Daily; image source: Mayo Clinic)

theolduvaigorge:

Bone replacement

  • a new synthetic material for repairing bones London, 1990

"In 1996 William Bonfield (born 1937) and colleagues at Queen Mary, University of London developed a synthetic bone graft material with a similar chemistry and structure to natural bone.

Before this time the only options available in bone surgery were to use bone harvested from cadavers and donated to hospital bone banks, or to transplant bone from one part of a patient’s body to another, a process known as ‘autografting’.

However both these options have distinct disadvantages. Bones from hospital banks are of variable quality, biologically inactive and do not promote bone growth. In contrast, autografts do promote bone growth but are limited in quantity, and can cause additional pain and sometimes infection.

Bonfield’s bone graft material can be used to stimulate the biological repair processes, giving surgeons a practical, new option in bone grafting operations such as hip replacements, or when reconstructing parts of the skeleton following trauma or disease”.

Royal Academy of Engineering

(Source: topbritishinnovations.org; via @sciencemuseum on Twitter)

theolduvaigorge:

A Rare Case of Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy from the Anasazi Site of Kintiel, Arizona

  • by Christopher Dudar and Donald J. Ortner (Department of Anthropology, NMNH, Smithsonian)

(Source: Click through for full poster in PDF via Academia.edu)

theolduvaigorge:

Analysis of human bones shows Aztecs practiced ritual cannibalism

  • from Archaeology News Network

Fragments of human bones that show cuts and prolonged exposure to fire, have allowed investigators to conclude that during the Post Classic period (900 through 1521 AD) rulers, priests and some high ranking warriors practiced cannibalism as a religious rite.

The findings are a result of recent investigations by archaeologist Gabino Lopez Arenas on craniums, tibia, humerus and jaws located among the offerings of the Great Temple and in the surroundings of the historical center. Lopez Arenas explained that the osteological evidence found in the Sacred Grounds of Tenochtitlan, allows the conclusion that individuals were decapitated and dismembered, the majority of which still possessed bland tissue.

“We observed that immediately after the victims were immolated their flesh was removed, this is confirmed because a great quantity of bones had cuts and alterations that were done while the bone was fresh and recently exposed to fire”, he assured. The specialist added that the practice of cannibalism had the purpose of “absorbing the divine strength that remained in the victim’s bodies: To Mexicas, the human victims were the incarnation of the gods they represented, and by eating their flesh they could share their divinity”.

The archaeologist pointed out that the flesh of those sacrificed was ingested in specific ceremonies by individuals of a high social status, but it wasn’t a common meal in their diet” (read more).

(Source: Archaeology News Network)

nautilusfire:

Challenge accepted.

theolduvaigorge:

Bony Pelvic Canal Size and Shape in Relation to Body Proportionality in Humans

  • by Helen K. Kurki

"Obstetric selection acts on the female pelvic canal to accommodate the human neonate and contributes to pelvic sexual dimorphism. There is a complex relationship between selection for obstetric sufficiency and for overall body size in humans. The relationship between selective pressures may differ among populations of different body sizes and proportions, as pelvic canal dimensions vary among populations. Size and shape of the pelvic canal in relation to body size and shape were examined using nine skeletal samples (total female n557; male n584) from diverse geographical regions. Pelvic, vertebral, and lower limb bone measurements were collected. Principal component analyses demonstrate pelvic canal size and shape differences among the samples. Male multivariate variance in pelvic shape is greater than female variance for North and South Africans. High-latitude samples have larger and broader bodies, and pelvic canals of larger size and, among females, relatively broader medio-lateral dimensions relative to low-latitude samples, which tend to display relatively expanded inlet antero-posterior (A-P) and posterior canal dimensions. Differences in canal shape exist among samples that are not associated with latitude or body size, suggesting independence of some canal shape characteristics from body size and shape. The South Africans are distinctive with very narrow bodies and small pelvic inlets relative to an elongated lower canal in A-P and posterior lengths. Variation in pelvic canal geometry among populations is consistent with a high degree of evolvability in the human pelvis” (read more/not open access).

(Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology151(1):88-101, 2013)

You don’t get anywhere further in life making things comfortable or easy for yourself.

You don’t make it any easier by procrastination or giving complaints. You have to just do it and accept that working— and working hard is apart of life overall. The sooner it is accepted the sooner you can live a healthy growing, and eventually, fulfilling life. 

-Lisette

s-c-i-guy:

Visualizing Viruses

Scientists devise a gentler technique for observing viral DNA at single-molecule resolution

Observing viruses infecting cells is essential for making plans to defeat them, but the two main methods for viewing viral DNA in host cells have limitations.

Genetically engineering the virus to contain sequences that can be bound by fluorescent proteins may interfere with the structure and behavior of the viral DNA, says Urs Greber, a virologist at the University of Zurich. And with the other popular technique, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), “one is never sure if every [viral] DNA in the cell is equally accessible” for labeling, he says, adding that the harsh denaturing and permeabilizing conditions required for FISH may also destroy or remove viral DNA.

So Greber and his colleagues have developed a technique that avoids denaturation and modifies the viral genomes in a manner compatible with continued replication and viability. They use ethynyl-tagged versions of nucleotide precursors called nucleosides, which are incorporated into viral genomes during replication. The tagged DNA is detected with fluorescent azide molecules that bind to the ethynyls in a reaction called “click chemistry.” Cells can either be fixed immediately to look at replication sites or used to harvest labeled virus for infecting other hosts. Greber employs superresolution fluorescence microscopy to view individual genomes.

Using the approach, Greber has found that, contrary to FISH-based observations, adenovirus genomes (pre-labeled before infection) are not all delivered directly to the nucleus for replication. “Much of [the virus] remains in the cytosol,” he says. This is “a big surprise” says Lynn Enquist, a molecular biologist at Princeton University.

Keeping viral DNA in the cytoplasm “might be part of the cell’s intrinsic defense against viral infections,” Enquist says, adding that Greber’s new technique offers an ideal system to find out.

Read more

(via kenobi-wan-obi)

anthrocentric:

Meanings for Closeness and Intimacy in Friendship [SagePub]

Abstract: Closeness and intimacy are fundamental, but poorly defined, concepts in the study of personal relationships. We sought to contribute to a more precise understanding of closeness and intimacy by first examining participants’ meanings for closeness in friendships, and then by comparing meanings for closeness with participants’ meanings for intimacy. In a self-report survey 270 college students were asked what made their same-sex and cross-sex friendships close and how close-ness was expressed. Thirteen different meanings for close-ness were derived. Individuals assigned an average of three meanings for closeness, with the most common being self-disclosure, support, shared interests and explicit expression of the value of the relationship. Native meanings for closeness differed relatively little across sexes and relational types. Respondents envisioned three possible relationships between closeness and intimacy. Just under half the respondents appeared to view them as equivalent terms, while the remaining respondents emphasized either qualitative or quantitative differences. The chief qualitative difference was that intimacy implied a romantic or sexual dimension to about one quarter of the respondents. Quantitative differences generally took the form of believing that an intimate relationship was a more intense form of a close relationship. Closeness appeared to be a richer, more inclusive term than intimacy. Respondents generated more meanings for it and thought of a greater variety of relationships as close. There were fewer sex differences in meanings for closeness than in meanings for intimacy.

What Asexuality Contributes to the Same-Sex Marriage Discussion [Taylor&Francis]

Abstract: While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer (LGBTQ) political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage.

Interpersonal rituals in marriage and adult friendship [Taylor&Francis]

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine inductively types of interpersonal rituals in marriages and adult friendship and assess ritual enactment among friendship types (males’ and females’ same‐sex, cross‐sex, and couple friendships). Twenty married couples were interviewed, and 79 couples completed open‐ended questionnaires about both their marriage and friendship rituals. From their reports, a typology of seven marriage ritual types (two with subcategories including seven total subtypes) and a typology of six friendship ritual types (two with subcategories including seven total subtypes) were developed. The typology of marriage rituals with subtypes in parentheses include: Couple‐ Time Rituals (Enjoyable Activities, Togetherness Rituals, Escape Episodes), Idiosyncratic/Symbolic Rituals (Favorites, Private Codes, Play Rituals, and Celebration Rituals), Daily Routines and Tasks, Intimacy Expressions, Communication Rituals, Patterns/Habits/Mannerisms, and Spiritual Rituals. The typology of friendship rituals with subtypes in parentheses include: Social/Fellowship Rituals (Enjoyable Activities, Getting Together Rituals, Established Events, Escape Episodes), Idiosyncratic/Symbolic Rituals (Celebration Rituals, Play Rituals, Favorites), Communication Rituals, Share/Support/Vent Rituals, Tasks/Favors, and Patterns/Habits/Mannerisms. Analyses further suggest that certain types of ritual enactment occur more frequently in certain types of friendship.

The function of mundane ritualizing in adult friendship and marriage [Taylor&Francis]

Abstract: Rituals serve important functions in both friendships and married relationships. This study served, to investigate the categorical structures of rituals in both of these relationship types. In married relationships, seven categories of ritual functions emerged including: Relational Masonry, Relational Maintenance, Life Management, Fun/Enjoyment, Togetherness, Talk‐Time, and Anti‐Ritual. In friendships, seven categories of ritual functions also emerged including: Personal & Relational Stimulation, Personal Improvement, Relational‐Affirmation, Support, Self‐Affirmation, Escape, and Anti‐Ritual.

ombuddha:

What should be done by one who’s skilled in wholesomeness
To gain the state of peacefulness is this:
One must be able, upright, straight and not proud,
Easy to speak to, mild and well content,
Easily satisfied and not caught up
In too much bustle, and frugal in one’s ways,
With senses calmed, intelligent, not bold,
Not being covetous when with other folk,
Abstaining from the ways that wise ones blame,
And this the thought that one should always hold:
“May beings all live happily and safely
And may their hearts rejoice within themselves.
Whatever there may be with breath of life,
Whether they be frail or very strong,
Without exception, be they long or short
Or middle-sized, or be they big or small,
Or thick, or visible, or invisable,
Or whether they dwell far or they dwell near,
Those that are here, those seeking to exist-
May beings all rejoice within themselves.
Let no one bring about another’s ruin
And not despise in any way or place,
Let them not wish each other any ill
From provocation or from enmity.”

The Buddha.

Photo by Jakob Anderson.